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Glossary C

Carbohydrate Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used by the body as a fuel source. Two main groups are sugars and starch.

Carbohydrate Loading Increase consumption of carbohydrates in liquid or food form normally three days prior to an endurance type event.

Cardiovascular Training Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels, the result of which is an increase in the ability for your body muscles to utilize fuel more effectively resulting in a greater level of exercising.

Catabolism The breakdown of lean muscle mass, normally as a result of injury, immobilization and poor dieting techniques.

Cellulose Indigestible fibre in foods.

Chalk Powder used on hands for secure grip.

Cheating Too much weight used on an exercise, therefore relying on surrounding muscle groups for assistance in the movement; or changing joint angles for more leverage, as in arching back in bench press.

Chelating Agents Soluble organic compounds that can fit certain metallic ions into their molecular structure.

Cholesterol A fat lipid which has both good and bad implications within the human body. Good being known as HDL and bad being LDL. Bad cholesterol is associated with heart disease and stroke, whereas the body requires cholesterol for the production of many steroid hormones.

Chronic Disease A disease or illness that is associated with lifestyle or environment factors as opposed to infectious diseases (hypo kinetic diseases are considered to be chronic diseases).

Circuit Training Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises or time on each apparatus, keeps pulse rate high and promotes overall fitness, by generally working all muscle groups as well as heart and lungs.

Clean Lifting weight from floor to shoulder in one motion.

Clean and Jerk Olympic lift where weight is raised from floor to overhead in two movements.

Clean and Snatch One of two Olympic lifts where weight is raised from floor to overhead at arms length in one motion.

Coenzyme A substance that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme's activity.

Complete Proteins Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.

Compound Training Sometimes called “giant sets”; doing 3-4 exercises with the same muscle, one after the other, with minimal rest in between.

Concentric Contraction An isotonic muscle contraction, where a muscle contracts or shortens.

Congestive Heart Failure The inability of the heart muscle to pump the blood at a life sustaining rate.

Cool Down Moderate then light activity, normally followed by stretching.

Coronary Circulation Circulation of blood to the heart muscle associated with the blood carrying capacity of a specific vessel or development of collateral vessels (extra blood vessels).

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Diseases of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen, high risk factor for a heart attack.

Coronary Occlusion The blocking of the coronary blood vessels.

Creatine Phosphate An inorganic phosphate molecule which binds with ADP and forms ADT. Produced naturally within the body, however creatine mono hydrate supplements have helped a number of athletes boost their performances.

Crunches – Abdominal exercises Sit-ups done on the floor with legs on bench, hands behind the neck.

Curl Bar Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.

Cutting Up Reducing body fat and water retention to increase muscle definition.

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