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Glossary A

Abduction Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arms to shoulder height from hanging down position.

Abs Abbreviation for abdominal muscles.

Absolute Strength The maximum amount a person can lift in one repetition.

Accommodating Resistance Increasing resistance as lifters force increases through range of motion. Nautilus machines are said to provide accommodating resistance.

Acquired Ageing The acquisition of characteristics commonly associated with ageing but that are, in fact, caused by immobility or sedentary living.

Active Stretch Muscles are stretched using the contraction of the opposing muscle, (antagonist). For an example stretching the triceps, requires the biceps to contract.

Adduction Movement of a limb toward middle of body, such as bringing arms to side from extended position at shoulder.

Adhesion Fibrous patch holding muscles or other parts together that are normally separated.

ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) ADP is formed when ATP is broken down within the bodies cell furnace, (the mitochondria). This provides energy for muscular contraction.

Aerobic capacity Another term for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max)

Aerobic Exercise, (with oxygen) Activity in which the body is able to supply adequate oxygen to the working muscles, for a period of time. Running, cross-country skiing and cycling are examples of aerobic activities.

AFWB – American Federation of Women Bodybuilders Group that administers womens amateur bodybuilding in America.

Agonist Muscle directly engaged in contraction that is primarily responsible for movement of a body part.

All-or-None Muscle fibre contracts fully or it does not contract at all.

All Natural Athletes, especially body builders who can avoid using steroids or other banned substances.

Amino Acids Twenty- two basic building blocks of the body that make up proteins.

Anabolic Steroid Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle building characteristics of the male hormone testosterone.

Anaerobic Exercise, (without oxygen) Activities in which oxygen demands of muscles are so high that they rely upon an internal metabolic process for oxygen, resulting in lactic acid build up. Short bursts of “all-out” activities such as sprinting or weightlifting are anaerobic.

Anaerobic Threshold The point at which you begin working your muscles without oxygen, from an aerobic level, believed to be at about 87% of your Maximum Heart Rate.

Angina Pectoris Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Antagonist Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when the agonist muscle contracts.

Anti - Catabolism Supplements such as glutamine, used to prevent breakdown within the body, in order to promote muscle growth.

Antioxidants Vitamins A, C and E, along with various minerals, which are useful to protect the body from “free radicals”. Free radicals are unstable molecules which react with oxygen. They are naturally created in the body, and are also caused by factors such as smoking and radiation. Free radicals may cause cell damage, which leads to disease.

APC – American Physique Committee, Inc. Group that administers mens amateur bodybuilding in America.

Arm Blaster Aluminum or fibre glass strip about 5” x 24”, supported at waist height by a strap around the neck. Keeps elbows from moving while curling barbell or dumbbells or doing triceps pushdowns.

Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard, and none elastic.

Assimilation The process in which foods are utilized and absorbed by the body.

Atherosclerosis The deposition of materials along the arterial walls, a type of arteriosclerosis.

Atrophy – Withering away Decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs.

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