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Vitamins play an important role in development and the body's functions. A deficiency in a certain vitamin can give rise to certain disorders. Today deficiencies mainly occur in people from underdeveloped countries.

A normal healthy balanced diet is unlikely to lead to vitamin deficiencies unless you exclude whole food groups such as meat for example, as do Vegans/ Vegetarians, which can lead to a B12 deficiency.





Deficiency and toxicity


Fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter, cream, fortified margarine, green leafy or yellow vegetables

Important for healthy retinas in the eye and for healthy skin

Night blindness

Thickening of the skin (hyperkeratosis)

Toxicity –headaches, skin peeling, enlargement of liver and spleen.


Ultraviolet action on the skin. Fortified milk, fish liver oils, butter, egg yolk, liver

Allows Calcium to be absorbed. Important for healthy bone and collagen development, and maintenance of the same.

Rickets, Osteomalacia



Renal Failure

Metastatic calcification


Vegetable oil, wheat germ, leafy vegetable, egg yolk, margarine, beans

Antioxidant and stabilises the biological membranes

Red Blood Cell breakdown


Toxicity – interferes with enzymes and increased infection


Leafy vegetables, pork, liver, vegetable oils, intestinal flora

Prothrombin formation, normal blood coagulation.



Vitamin B1 Dried yeast, whole grains, meat, enriched cereal products, nuts, potatoes, legumes

Carbohydrate metabolism

Central and peripheral nerve cell function

Heart muscle function

Beriberi, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac failure
Vitamin B2 Milk, cheese, liver, meat, eggs, enriched cereal products Energy and protein metabolism; integrity of mucous membranes Angular stomatatis, corneal vascularisation, poor sight, sebaceous dermatosis
Vitamin B6 Dried yeast, liver, organ meats, whole-grain cereals, fish, legumes

Nitrogen metabolism

Linoleic acid metabolism

Convulsions in infancy, anaemia, neuropathy, seborrhea skin lesions
Vitamin B12 Liver, meats-especially pork and beef, eggs, milk and milk products Maturation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, neural function Pernicious anaemia, some psychiatric syndromes, poor sight

Vitamin C

Citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, green peppers

Essential for bone and collagen formation. Vascular function, tissue respiration and wound healing



Loose teeth



Additional Medical Conditions: 

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