Both internally and externally Hemorrhoids can be found in the lower part of the rectum. They are veins which are part of the cushioning tissue surrounding the anus, and which have become varicose. Symptoms of hemorrhoids are normally bleeding, pain and sometimes itching, and if they have prolapsed it is actually possible to feel them.
Haemorrhoids that are bleeding normally occur after emptying the bowels, and will be noticed on the toilet tissue. If bleeding occurs at other times, in large quantities either fresh or dark, then further investigations will be necessary to exclude other causes. The causes of hemorrhoids are usually linked with any situation that increases the blood pressure within the abdomen, e.g. pregnancy, standing for a long time, prolonged lifting or straining and constipation.
Treatment depends on the severity of the hemorrhoids and whether they are internal and prolapsed. Mild cases will resolve with a change in diet to high fibre to avoid constipation and a change in activity to avoid standing for too long or straining.
Severe and troublesome cases are initially treated by injection to try and clot the hemorrhoid, which in time will breakdown and disappear. If this does not work and they reoccur, then surgery to remove the cushioning tissue in which the hemorrhoid is situated is usually performed, this is known as a haemorrhoidectomy.
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